Environmental science & policy 12 (2009) 170–189, Elsevier
Olivier Le Curieux-Belfond a , Louise Vandelac a,b , Joseph Caron b , Gilles-Eric Séralini a,c, *
aCRIIGEN, 40 rue de Monceau - 75008 Paris, France
bCINBIOSE, Universite Ì du Que Ìbec a` Montre Ìal, C.P. 8888 Succ.A Montre Ìal H3C 3P8 Canada
cUniversity of Caen and Poˆle Risques, Laboratory of Biochemistry, EA 2608, IBFA, 14032 Caen, France
Many genetically modified plants have been developed, and four of them (soya, maize, cotton, and colza) representing more than 99% of commercial crops, are widely distributed, mainly in the United States and in America [ISAAA, 2006. Report on global status on biotech/
GM crops, Brief 35. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications organization, US]. Yet all over the world policy is still in development in regard to authorization of modified plants and modified and/or cloned animals for food or feed and for their environmental release. The most advanced animal commercial projects concern various fish species, more easy to genetically transform, notably because conception and development take place in water and easy access to numerous eggs. A request for authorization to introduce genetically modified (GM) salmon onto the market has been presented to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the US. In the interim, questions have been raised concerning the impacts of transgenic salmon, modified for productivity, on aquaculture, wildlife, ecosystems and on human health. Herein we review these scientific studies and sanitary, environmental, social and economic arguments. This paper analyses current gaps in the knowledge of the impacts of transgenic fish and proposes legislation orientations necessary for environmental and sanitary protection, should the marketing of animal genetically modified organisms (GMOs) be authorized.
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Genetically modified organisms, (GMOs), Transgenic salmon, Aquaculture policy, Food safety, Environmental protection
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