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Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize

Tuesday 24 June 2014

Environmental Sciences Europe 2014, 26:14  doi:10.1186/s12302-014-0014-5

http://www.enveurope.com/content/26/1/14

Open Access

 

Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize

 

Gilles-Eric Séralini1*, Emilie Clair1, Robin Mesnage1, Steeve Gress1, Nicolas Defarge1, Manuela Malatesta2, Didier Hennequin3 and Joël Spiroux de Vendômois1   

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Biology, EA 2608 and CRIIGEN and Risk Pole, MRSH-CNRS, Esplanade de la Paix, University of Caen, Caen 14032, Cedex, France
2 Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, University of Verona, Verona 37134, Italy
3 Risk Pole, MRSH-CNRS, Esplanade de la Paix, University of Caen, Caen 14032, Cedex, France

 

Abstract


Background
The health effects of a Roundup-tolerant NK603 genetically modified (GM) maize (from 11% in the diet), cultivated with or without Roundup application and Roundup alone (from 0.1 ppb of the full pesticide containing glyphosate and adjuvants) in drinking water, were evaluated for 2 years in rats. This study constitutes a follow-up investigation of a 90-day feeding study conducted by Monsanto in order to obtain commercial release of this GMO, employing the same rat strain and analyzing biochemical parameters on the same number of animals per group as our investigation. Our research represents the first chronic study on these substances, in which all observations including tumors are reported chronologically. Thus, it was not designed as a carcinogenicity study. We report the major findings with 34 organs observed and 56 parameters analyzed at 11 time points for most organs.

 

Results
Biochemical analyses confirmed very significant chronic kidney deficiencies, for all treatments and both sexes; 76% of the altered parameters were kidney-related. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5 to 5.5 times higher. Marked and severe nephropathies were also generally 1.3 to 2.3 times greater. In females, all treatment groups showed a two- to threefold increase in mortality, and deaths were earlier. This difference was also evident in three male groups fed with GM maize. All results were hormone- and sex-dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors more frequently and before controls; the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by consumption of GM maize and Roundup treatments. Males presented up to four times more large palpable tumors starting 600 days earlier than in the control group, in which only one tumor was noted. These results may be explained by not only the non-linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup but also by the overexpression of the EPSPS transgene or other mutational effects in the GM maize and their metabolic consequences.

 

Conclusion
Our findings imply that long-term (2 year) feeding trials need to be conducted to thoroughly evaluate the safety of GM foods and pesticides in their full commercial formulations.


Keywords: Genetically modified; GMO; Roundup; NK603; Rat; Glyphosate-based herbicides; Endocrine disruption

Raw Data

 

File Name

Content

Rats identifications

Chip number of the rats in the experiment

List of blood and urine parameters with sampling and units details

List of abbreviations for blood and urine parameters with sampling and units details

Biochemistry M15

Biochemical parameters measurements at month 15 (Figure 3), abbreviations are detailed in the file named “List of blood and urine parameters with sampling and units details”

Mortality and tumors data

4 Excel sheets with the number of tumors per group (Figure 4) and dead rats per group (Figure 6) for both sexes